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Kraft wins in food fight with Cracker Barrel

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A federal appeals court ruled recently that savvy consumers might be confused if food branded Cracker Barrel Old Country Store was sold in grocery stores that carry Kraft’s Cracker Barrel brand cheese. Turns out even a law professor who teaches a course on trademarks and unfair competition might be fooled.

“When I thought of that cheese in the store, that’s what I would have thought of,” Notre Dame School of Law professor and associate dean Mark McKenna said. “In my mind at least, I associate the Cracker Barrel mark much more with the restaurant.”

wilson Warr

The 7th Circuit Court of Appeals on Nov. 14 affirmed an Illinois District Court’s temporary injunction won by Kraft Foods, which claimed that allowing the restaurant chain’s branded hams and other foods to be sold in groceries would confuse consumers familiar with Kraft’s Cracker Barrel cheese trademark.

“In some respects, the case is an application of some pretty standard principles of trademark law,” McKenna said. “What’s different about this case is you have longstanding mutual use of trademarks in different areas.”

Northfield, Ill.-based Kraft sued the Tennessee-based restaurant chain in Kraft Foods Group Brands LLC v. Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc., et al., 13-2559. The restaurant is free to sell its branded food items in its establishments, but Kraft has a trademark to defend when both items are sold in the same stores, the 7th Circuit held.The lawsuit against Cracker Barrel was filed after the restaurant began selling hams under license to a few groceries, but the opinion notes those sales stopped after Kraft sued.

Daniel P. Albers of Barnes & Thornburg LLP in Chicago represented Cracker Barrel and said he couldn’t discuss what the company might do after the ruling. “Cracker Barrel is disappointed with the ruling but pleased the court supports the sale of its product through its old country stores, mail order and online,” he said.

The restaurant has been doing that for years without challenge from Kraft. Albers said Kraft also has stipulated as part of this litigation that it has no objection to the restaurant selling items in grocery stores using its distinctive silhouette logo of Uncle Herschel in a rocking chair with the wording modified to “CB Old Country Store.”

New York attorney Barbara Solomon of Fross Zelnick Lehrman & Zissu P.C. represented Kraft at oral arguments before the 7th Circuit but did not reply to inquiries seeking comment.

The 7th Circuit opinion isn’t a ruling on the merits, Albers noted. “There’s not a lot of precedent where two companies coexisted this long and used the same words in their respective marks, and that was an issue we raised (at the District Court).”

Albers argued that a 66-year-old 7th Circuit ruling, California Fruit Growers Exch. v. Sunkist Baking Co., 166 F.2d 971 (1947), could have helped his client prevail. In that case, Hoosier jurist Sherman Minton wrote an opinion reversing a ruling that a baking company’s use of the “Sunkist” brand infringed the trademark on citrus and other such products. The case was remanded for dismissal.

Krieg DeVault LLP intellectual property litigation practice chairman Ali Warr said he thinks the Kraft opinion strikes a balance using time-tested principles. Warr is not involved in the litigation.

“We know in trademark law, first in time is first in right,” Warr said. “What the preliminary injunction does is protects the Cracker Barrel trademark for Kraft’s cheese in grocery story outlets.” Kraft perfected a Cracker Barrel trademark in the 1950s, and the restaurant chain didn’t trademark its name until the 1970s.

“It permits the coexistence of two otherwise identical trademarks … based on the channels of trade and the potential for customer confusion,” he said.

Similarity of the goods being sold also enters the equation. McKenna noted that there are all kinds of similar trademarks – think of Delta Air Lines and Delta Faucets, or Ace Bandages and Ace Hardware for example. But usually those brands are unlikely to compete in similar lines of commerce, so infringement isn’t typically an issue, he said.

Experts noted that 7th Circuit Judge Richard Posner went to some length in this case to note such factors. The opinion borrows from U.S. Supreme Court Justice Learned Hand’s observation that it would be hard for the seller of steam shovels to find grounds for a complaint against a lipstick using the same trademark.

“Cheese and deli meat are much more closely related,” Warr said.

Affirming the preliminary injunction, he continued, “sends a pretty strong signal to Cracker Barrel that Kraft has a substantial likelihood of succeeding on the merits in the case at trial.” But the opinion also gives Cracker Barrel Old Country Stores an avenue to proceed in the District Court or appeal because it was critical of Kraft’s expert survey, he said.

“If I’m Cracker Barrel Old Country Store and I don’t like this ruling, this is one issue I would attack in proceeding to trial,” Warr said. “Conversely, if I’m Kraft, now I have time to conduct a more thorough survey.”

McKenna said the case also is interesting in that Kraft had not objected to Cracker Barrel’s sale of similar food items until they began appearing on grocery store shelves.

In an opinion complete with pictures of the competing logos and an inconclusive exploration of consumer psychology in trademark cases, Posner wrote that Kraft must prevail. He noted prior court observations that “the average buyer is ‘neither savant nor dolt,’ but is one who ‘lacks special competency with reference to the matter at hand.’”

“Even savvy consumers might be fooled, because they know that producers often vary the appearance of their trademarks,” Posner wrote. Classifying the products as similar low-cost packaged food items, he found that if the restaurant chain prevailed, “similar products with confusingly similar trade names will be sold through the same distribution channel – grocery stores, and often the same grocery stores.

“Such similarities and overlap would increase the likelihood of consumer confusion detrimental to Kraft,” the court held.

Cracker Barrel operates more than 620 restaurants – including 29 in Indiana – and Kraft’s Cracker Barrel cheese is sold in thousands of grocery stores.•

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  1. Am I the only one who sees that the City is essentially giving away the MSA site AND giving millions to build new buildings on the site when this site would be the perfect place for the Justice Complex? Across from City-County, check; keeping it centrally located, check, etc. It's my understanding that the GM site must be purchased by the City from Motors Liquidation Company. STOP WASTING WHAT WE ALREADY HAVE AND OUR TAX DOLLARS! The Ballard Administration has not been known for it's common sense...never voted for him and never will!

  2. This guy sounds like the classic molester/manipulator.

  3. Louis D. Brandeis was born in 1856. At 9 years of age it would have been 1865. The Brandeis family did not own slaves. My source Louis D. Brandeis: A Life, by Melvin L. Urofsky.

  4. My name is Matthew Lucas Major, I recently went through a jury trial in Bloomington , In. It was the week of Feb 19-21. Although I have been incarcerated since August 5, 2014. The reason I 'am writing to you sir is on the 21 of February the jury came in with a very excessive and wrongful verdict of guilty on 6 child molesting charges against my daughter who was 9 at the time I was accused. I also had 2 other Felonies one of Intimidation and 1 of Sexual Vicarious Gratification. Judge Marc Kellam on the second day of trial gave me a not guilty on those 2 felonies. The jury was sent out during that time and when brought back Judge Kellam told them to not concern themselves with the 2 Felonies that he ruled on them. They were told to not let evidence they had already heard influence there verdicts. I never in my life touched any child sexually and definitely not with my own daughter. When I was arrested Detective Shawn Karr told me I would be convicted guilty just on my daughters word even without evidence. That's just what happened. my public defender did me so wrong he never once proved to the court and jury all the lies the child told, and Jeremy Noel my public defender could of proven the lies easily. The stories in Serenity's depositions and Forensic interview changed and were not consistent as Prosecutor Darcie Fawcett claimed they were. Yet my attorney never mentioned that. The facts that the child accused me of full penetration in her vagina and rectum was proven lies. Doctor Roberta Hibbard of Riley hospital in Indianapolis confirmed Serenity's hymen intact, no scars, no tearing, no signs of rape to her. Yet my attorney didn't use that knowledge . the DNA was all in my favor. I tell you I will spend my entire life in prison going through rape and beatings etc. even Judge Kellam abused his authority by telling the jurors to listen and believe what the prosecutors side in evidence like my daughters testimony. In one interview with the detectives my daughter got flustered with her mom and said on camera " I'm saying what you told me to mom"!! Yet Mr. Noel said nor did anything to even resemble a defense attorney. Judge Kellam allowed edited version of a taped conversation between the child and her mother. Also Judge Kellam allowed the Prosecutor too bring in to my case a knife found under my seat, the knife wasn't part of my case. She was allowed by my attorney and the judge to put a huge picture of it on the screen and huge picture of my naked privates in a full courtroom and open court. Ms. Fawcett says to jury see how easy Mr. Major could reach the knife and cut his Childs throat. Even though I had no weapons charge against these cases. This gave the jurors prejudice thought against me thinking I threatened her with that knife and how scared she would of been knowing i could get it and kill her. On my sentencing court March 19, 2014 my public defender told Judge Kellam he wish to resign from being my attorney and wished for the court to give me outside council to file a error to trial or appeal. We were denied. Now after openly knowing my public defender don't want to represent me he has to. Well when as parents we make our kids clean a room when they really don't wish to, well the child will but don't mean she will do a good job, that's where I'm at with Mr. Noel. please dont ignore mine and my families pleas for your help . we have all the legal proof you could need to prove Im innocent. Please dont make my spend years in prison innocent when you can fix this wrong. Im not saying Im a perfect man or that I was a perfect dad to my 2 children none of us are. Ive made some bad choices in life and I paid for them. But I didnt ever touch or rape my daughter . I love my children with all my heart. And now through needing attention and a ex-wife who told my granny several times she wish she could put me in prison to get me out of their lives. Well my ex finally accomplished her goal. Sad part is she is destroying our daughter with all this horrific lies and things she taught my daughter to say. My daughter will need therapist to ever hope for a chance of a normal life after what she had done to her by her mom and their side of the family. My daughter told everyone even on stand she had a dream months before i supposedly molested her in this dream I was molesting her and when I finally did it matched her dream perfectly. She admitted to watching movies about little girls being molested and watching U-Tube videos about child molesting all before it happened supposedly to her. Doesn't that sound very unusual that a non molested 9 yr old would need to know so much about being molested? The only reason I could think a 9 year old would need so much information is to be prepared to know what to say and be able to say how it felt what took place etc.. So when questioned by authorities she would be prepared. And there again sir if a parent is pre grooming a 9 year old child she would need intimate details . Like telling her daughter about a couple moles on my private area. The child admitted to sneaking my cell and looking many many times at nudes of me and my girlfriend even one where my penis was entering my girlfriends vagina. In that picture my moles are obvious. Yet when prosecutor showed everyone in court my privates and pictures of the moles she said the only way the child would know about them is if she saw them for herself. My attorney once again said nothing about the pictures my child saw. Or could a ex-wife be able to describe my moles to help her case against getting rid of me? I beg you help me. This is my very existence. Ive lost everything , a good job, a wonderful girlfriend, my freedom, but worse thing Ive lost is my children. They were my reason to get up every morning and strive to be better. The wonderful bond I had with my Serenity is gone. After this I would be afraid to even hug her for fear of what next can they do to me. I'm not afraid to tell you I sit here in this cell and try to hold back my tears. Everyone knows you cant show weakness in prison. My life has already been threatened here at Wabash Valley Prison. After only 3 days of arrival. I was tricked into signing a waiver now Im in G Block General Population with 6 child molesting felony charges. Mrs. Hart as a 18 year old I almost died hooked to machines in hospital almost 1 month and now I know that fear was childish compared to this . I cant help but put emotions in this, after all Mrs. Hart Im human and God help Me I never been more afraid in my life. I didnt hurt my little girl I didnt touch her sexually. As much as it shreds me and fills my mind what Im facing I worry more about my mom and granny because of their great love for me mam they are suffering so deeply. I aint done this things but my loved ones suffering right along beside me and If you take my case you will be in essence freeing them also. I sent momma this letter and asked her to email it to you. I'm scared I have been done so unjustly by our legal system and I need you to fix this and give me freedom. I ask you please don't just ignore my pleas. Here in America its nice to be able to trust our legal justice system, well they destroyed my and my loved ones trust in our justice system . And I'm trusting in You !!! My entire family is suffering this nightmare with me. My 77 year old granny had a stroke and isn't doing so well. My single mother that raised 3 kids alone is dying from Lupus and since my arrest has stayed so sick and weary. Our lives torn to peices by a government I was taught I could trust in. my momma has tried so many innocent project and wrongfully accused and cant get anywhere. please please help me. A quote from the late Nelson Mandela: To be free is not merely to cast off ones chains, But to live in a way that respects and enhances The Freedom Of Others. I have Faith in you and your clinic to cast my chains off and give me freedom I do deserve as a wrongfully accused Man, son, brother, father, friend. Matthew Major DOC# 246179 Cause # : 53c02-1308-FA-000779 God Bless you. Please contact me with your decision so I know you made a life changing decision for me , just please at least write me so I know you care enough about your citizens to respond to cries for your help. You can speak openly with my mother Charlotte Spain (828) 476-0406: 71 Lakeview Dr. Canton, NC 28716 Thank You Matthew Major I know yall get thousands of request and inmates claiming innocence, and each person who are innocent deserve to have organizations like yours willing to fight for them and I give yall so much Thanks and I thank God everyday yall are out there caring enough to help free the innocents. Since discovering firsthand how easily lives and families can be destroyed by Poor Defense attorneys not doing their job . And Prosecutors allowed to do as they please in court

  5. Frankly, it is tragic that you are even considering going to an expensive, unaccredited "law school." It is extremely difficult to get a job with a degree from a real school. If you are going to make the investment of time, money, and tears into law school, it should not be to a place that won't actually enable you to practice law when you graduate.

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