ILNews

Cultural background may affect mediation

Back to TopCommentsE-mailPrintBookmark and Share

Elodie Meuser, an Indianapolis attorney and mediator with The Mediation Option, recalls times when the firm has handled cases involving people from different countries. One case, in particular, resulted in a slightly puzzling outcome.

“I wasn’t personally involved in the mediation – but we had a gentleman who was from Tunisia, and when things seemed to not be going his way, he ended the mediation. Of course that’s what everybody wants when they come to mediation – they want to get their way. But it was a bit unusual that it ended so quickly,” she said.

Mediators say that they must be able to understand cultural differences without making broad generalizations or assumptions.

“As neutrals, we have to make sure that our experiences don’t enter into it,” Meuser said.

Real and perceived differences

We’ve all heard the saying, “As American as apple pie,” but some Americans don’t like apples. Or pie. So to assume that all members of a particular culture share the same values or personality traits would be a fallacy, as attorney and mediator Sam Ardery explained.

Ardery, of the Bloomington firm Bunger & Robertson, said that he does not assume that people from different cultures will necessarily react differently to mediation than anyone else would.

“It doesn’t give them credit for having done their own research about it,” he said.

When Ardery knows that clients come from different cultural backgrounds, he tries to learn about the people before he meets them.

“I do a little more preparation ahead of time and call those people, or call their lawyers and talk to them,” he said.

Some differences are not so much about customs in other cultures, but are more about the value Americans place on certain transactions – like contracts.

“In the United States, we sign a contract, we assume it’s binding. But for some people when they sign a contract, that’s the beginning of the negotiation,” Ardery said.

Doing business at home and abroad
 

lykins-dallin-mug.jpg Lykins

Dallin Lykins, an immigration attorney at Lewis & Kappes in Indianapolis who has mediated family law cases, has experienced how some cultures have a different view of business relationships.

Lykins was a missionary for his church in Costa Rica for two years, and in that time, he observed an approach to business that is considerably different than the contract-driven American business culture.

“It seemed to me that a lot of their issues they took much more personally. Especially in business settings, everyone was viewed as a friend,” he said.

“Almost every aspect of our lives is based on, ‘We have to form a contract first.’ In Costa Rica, I didn’t notice this as much. It was often, ‘This guy’s my friend, and this should be fine,’ and that was very often successful when a dispute came up,” Lykins said.

Much of what Lykins understands about cultural differences he learned through the process of trial-and-error.

He said his tendency to think, “There’s a problem, you resolve it,” wasn’t necessarily what people expected out of him, especially in family disagreements. “They wanted someone to help them handle the emotional aspects of the dispute.”

In cross-cultural mediations, he said, mediators should take the time to learn about how the specific problem parties wish to address – divorce, for example – may carry different weight in another country.

“You have to do your homework and know about that culture and what to expect, but second, listen to them and know what their background is and what they expect,” Lykins said.

The best way to understand a person’s background is to ask, rather than assume, as reflected in the Pew Hispanic Center’s report called, “When Labels Don’t Fit: Hispanics and Their Views of Identity.” The report, released April 4, stated only 29 percent of Latino or Hispanic people agree that they share a common culture, with 69 percent saying that Latinos in the United States have many different cultures.

Language barriers

Meuser’s firm handled a mediation between a Muslim man and his ex-wife, in which one disagreement concerned a word he asked his daughter to use when referring to his new wife, who was also Muslim.

“What this gentleman wanted was to refer to his new wife by a name that wasn’t familiar to everyone, and the biological mother was concerned that the man’s daughter was calling her ‘Mommy,’” Meuser said. “We did research on the Internet while they were here, and we tried to find out what the meaning was of that word, and we found out that word wasn’t ‘mother,’ but that it was a term for a revered adult female.”

The father hadn’t been able to explain the word – at least not to his ex-wife’s satisfaction. But when mediators explained what they found in their online research, she did not object to the term.

Meuser recalled another instance where language presented some challenges for mediators.

“We also had a Japanese woman here who had bank accounts in Japan, and her husband was relying on her to translate, to say what they meant,” she said. The mediators had no way of knowing whether the woman’s translation of the documents was accurate, so the final mediation agreement was drafted to say that if the husband later found out that she had deceived him about the bank accounts, the case would be reopened.

Cultural impact on closure

The American Bar Association’s Section of Dispute Resolution scheduled a continuing legal education program for April 20, to be held at its annual convention. The program description for the CLE, “When Is A Deal A Deal?  The Impact of Culture on Closure and the Durability of Settlement Agreements,” states that in different cultures, people view fairness, truth and durability quite differently. That’s something Ardery heard about recently at a seminar.

“I was just at an ethics seminar in Cincinnati and they had two people there who were general counsel for large multinational organizations and they talked about situations they ran into where they went into certain cultures where gift-giving was part of the culture,” he said. To Americans, gift-giving in business can be seen as bribing.

“So (while) in the United States no one would legally expect to go and give someone in the government a gift – I’m going to buy you a vacation home, and you pass this piece of legislation – there are some places in the world where that is expected,” he said.

Ardery said that despite any differences between cultures, mediators generally must prove their trustworthiness in the same manner, using the “Trust Equation” set forth in the book “The Trusted Advisor,” by David Maister, Charles Green and Robert Galford.

That equation means mediators must demonstrate credibility, reliability and intimacy – or, how secure the client feels – all over a “denominator” of self-interest, meaning the mediator is motivated by the client’s needs.

“In thinking about that, I think it really applies, whether somebody grew up in the Midwest, or somebody grew up halfway around the world,” Ardery said.•
 

ADVERTISEMENT

Post a comment to this story

COMMENTS POLICY
We reserve the right to remove any post that we feel is obscene, profane, vulgar, racist, sexually explicit, abusive, or hateful.
 
You are legally responsible for what you post and your anonymity is not guaranteed.
 
Posts that insult, defame, threaten, harass or abuse other readers or people mentioned in Indiana Lawyer editorial content are also subject to removal. Please respect the privacy of individuals and refrain from posting personal information.
 
No solicitations, spamming or advertisements are allowed. Readers may post links to other informational websites that are relevant to the topic at hand, but please do not link to objectionable material.
 
We may remove messages that are unrelated to the topic, encourage illegal activity, use all capital letters or are unreadable.
 

Messages that are flagged by readers as objectionable will be reviewed and may or may not be removed. Please do not flag a post simply because you disagree with it.

Sponsored by
ADVERTISEMENT
Subscribe to Indiana Lawyer
  1. Good luck, but as I have documented in three Hail Mary's to the SCOTUS, two applications (2007 & 2013),a civil rights suit and my own kicked-to-the-curb prayer for mandamus. all supported in detailed affidavits with full legal briefing (never considered), the ISC knows that the BLE operates "above the law" (i.e. unconstitutionally) and does not give a damn. In fact, that is how it was designed to control the lawyers. IU Law Prof. Patrick Baude blew the whistle while he was Ind Bar Examiner President back in 1993, even he was shut down. It is a masonic system that blackballs those whom the elite disdain. Here is the basic thrust:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackballing When I asked why I was initially denied, the court's foremost jester wrote back that the ten examiners all voted, and I did not gain the needed votes for approval (whatever that is, probably ten) and thus I was not in .. nothing written, no explanation, just go away or appeal ... and if you appeal and disagree with their system .. proof positive you lack character and fitness. It is both arbitrary and capricious by its very design. The Hoosier legal elites are monarchical minded, and rejected me for life for ostensibly failing to sufficiently respect man's law (due to my stated regard for God's law -- which they questioned me on, after remanding me for a psych eval for holding such Higher Law beliefs) while breaking their own rules, breaking federal statutory law, and violating federal and state constitutions and ancient due process standards .. all well documented as they "processed me" over many years.... yes years ... they have few standards that they will not bulldoze to get to the end desired. And the ISC knows this, and they keep it in play. So sad, And the fed courts refuse to do anything, and so the blackballing show goes on ... it is the Indy way. My final experience here: https://www.scribd.com/document/299040062/Brown-ind-Bar-memo-Pet-cert I will open my files to anyone interested in seeing justice dawn over Indy. My cases are an open book, just ask.

  2. Looks like 2017 will be another notable year for these cases. I have a Grandson involved in a CHINS case that should never have been. He and the whole family are being held hostage by CPS and the 'current mood' of the CPS caseworker. If the parents disagree with a decision, they are penalized. I, along with other were posting on Jasper County Online News, but all were quickly warned to remove posts. I totally understand that some children need these services, but in this case, it was mistakes, covered by coorcement of father to sign papers, lies and cover-ups. The most astonishing thing was within 2 weeks of this child being placed with CPS, a private adoption agency was asking questions regarding child's family in the area. I believe a photo that was taken by CPS manager at the very onset during the CHINS co-ocerment and the intent was to make money. I have even been warned not to post or speak to anyone regarding this case. Parents have completed all requirements, met foster parents, get visitation 2 days a week, and still the next court date is all the way out till May 1, which gives them(CPS) plenty of to time make further demands (which I expect) No trust of these 'seasoned' case managers, as I have already learned too much about their dirty little tricks. If they discover that I have posted here, I expect they will not be happy and penalized parents again. Still a Hostage.

  3. They say it was a court error, however they fail to mention A.R. was on the run from the law and was hiding. Thus why she didn't receive anything from her public defender. Step mom is filing again for adoption of the two boys she has raised. A.R. is a criminal with a serious heroin addiction. She filed this appeal MORE than 30 days after the final decision was made from prison. Report all the facts not just some.

  4. Hysteria? Really Ben? Tell the young lady reported on in the link below that worrying about the sexualizing of our children is mere hysteria. Such thinking is common in the Royal Order of Jesters and other running sex vacays in Thailand or Brazil ... like Indy's Jared Fogle. Those tempted to call such concerns mere histronics need to think on this: http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/a-12-year-old-girl-live-streamed-her-suicide-it-took-two-weeks-for-facebook-to-take-the-video-down/ar-AAlT8ka?li=AA4ZnC&ocid=spartanntp

  5. This is happening so much. Even in 2016.2017. I hope the father sue for civil rights violation. I hope he sue as more are doing and even without a lawyer as pro-se, he got a good one here. God bless him.

ADVERTISEMENT