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Debating the merits of mandatory seat belts on school buses

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On the morning of March 12, an Indianapolis school bus crashed into a stone bridge abutment, killing the bus driver and a 5-year-old passenger, and injuring several students. Almost immediately, in online forums and on news websites, readers began posting comments, wondering why the law does not require seat belts on school buses and whether seat belts would have made a difference in that crash.

Federal and state law does not require seat belts in school buses over 10,000 pounds. But since October 2009, federal law has required lap and shoulder restraints in new buses under 10,000 pounds – small vehicles made for 10 to 14 students.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reports that in larger buses, the spacing and height of the seats offer crash protection for children through “compartmentalization.” But opinions remain divided about whether compartmentalization does enough to protect students and whether school bus seat belts should be required by law.

Federal regulation

A change in federal law since 2009 has required seat backs on buses to be 24 inches high, as opposed to the

previous standard 20 inches. That added height may offer additional protection for students in specific types of crashes by preventing children from being propelled over a seat.

Church Church Hittle & Antrim attorney Andrew Manna said the school corporation clients he contacted said they are not required to retrofit older buses to have 24-inch-high seat backs. And Dr. Marilyn Bull, co-medical director of the Automotive Safety Program at Riley Hospital for Children said buses are simply not built for easy retrofitting.

“The average life span of a bus is 10 to 15 years, so you can’t buy a new bus, but you can’t retire those buses with low seat backs,” she said.

In 2006, Pediatrics, the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, featured a report by Bull and several colleagues that examined the epidemiology of non-fatal school bus-related injuries. It was the first, and most recent, report to study non-fatal school bus injuries.

Bull said that compartmentalization assumes that children always sit facing forward, with their feet on their floor and hands on their laps – an unrealistic scenario on most buses. Furthermore, while compartmentalization may prevent injuries in front- or rear-impact collisions, it offers limited protection in other crashes.

“Compartmentalization is recognized to be incomplete protection for side impact or rollover crashes,” Bull said. Crash tests have shown that three-point restraints – combined lap and shoulder seat belts – are much safer than compartmentalization or lap belts, she said.

Laws slow to change
 

tom wyss Wyss

Sen. Tom Wyss, R-Fort Wayne, chair of the Senate Homeland Security, Transportation and Veterans Affairs Committee, said that the buzz about the need for seat belt laws tends to arise whenever children are injured or killed in a school bus crash.

“Over the years, there’s been a lot of attention that has come up from different situations, and what has always happened is there’s always been resistance by the school corporations on mandating that this be done because of the vast cost that there would be in putting these in,” Wyss said.

And budgetary concerns are not unique to Indiana.

In Ashburn, Va., the Loudoun County School Board this year was considering no longer buying buses with safety belts in order to save money – about $10,000 per each new bus purchase. And Thomas Reed, an at-large Loudoun County school board member, said students simply weren’t using the safety belts.

“At the time that we did it, we expected that we would get compliance from students, and at the time, we expected that we would be in compliance with the federal government,” Reed said.

But the anticipated change in federal law – one that would mandate seat belts on all school buses – never came.

Wyss explained that people may be slow to warm up to ideas that require some significant effort to implement. As an example, he talked about legislation he authored in 2004 that requires children under age 1 to be in a rear-facing car seat and requires children up to age 8 to use a booster seat.

“We never used to think about putting kids in booster seats until we did that legislation, and I still think that’s one of the best things I was ever involved in,” he said. “But we had signs (at the Statehouse) in protest of what I was doing.”

He said he was surprised when parents complained to him about the cost and inconvenience of having to put multiple children in booster seats or about having to transfer booster seats between family cars, depending on who was transporting children.

“The point was not how inconvenient it was for people to do this for their kids, the point is saving their kids’ lives,” he said.

seatbeltfacts
Public policy

Ron Chew, president of the Indiana State School Bus Drivers Association, said that the organization does not support seat belts on school buses. He said one of the concerns about seat belts is that they may ultimately put children at greater risk in certain situations.

If a school bus were to overturn, he said, rescue might be more difficult if the children are buckled-in.

“There is also the possibility of a fire on the bus, and if the students were in an upside-down position, this would really slow the evacuation process tremendously,” he said. “Also, who is going to monitor the students to make sure they have fastened their belts?”

Bull is familiar with these concerns.

“In terms of egress during emergency, all children over the age of 5 know how to unbuckle their seat belt. Unfortunately, they do it too frequently,” she said. “Evacuating the bus during a fire is a concern always, and it’s something that is practiced twice a year by bus drivers.”

Bull said she’s heard arguments that children will use seat belts as weapons against each other, or that they simply won’t use them – but those issues should be addressed by outreach and education.

“With or without belts, behavior on buses needs to be a component, not only for the child, but for the parents,” she said.

Bull said that children who grow up riding in booster seats, being taught to fasten their seat belts and sit properly in family vehicles may be receiving inconsistent and confusing messages when they ride to school in buses that have no seat belts.

“One of my partners said her 5-year-old came home and asked, ‘How come only the driver gets a seat belt?’” Bull said.

Statistics

The NHTSA reports that school buses are one of the safest modes of transportation. Bull and Chew agree. But many of the statistics that support the safety of school bus travel look only at the number of school bus fatalities – not injuries – and school bus crash data is flawed for several reasons.

Many national crash datasets cannot adequately be compared, due to lack of consistency in terminology. Furthermore, Bull and her colleagues reported in their research that the Transportation Research Board – which at the time estimated the number of annual school bus related injuries to be 5,500 – accounted only for injuries that occurred between 6 a.m. and 8:59 a.m., and between 2 p.m. and 4:59 p.m., Monday through Friday, from Sept. 1 to mid-June. The research that Bull’s team conducted included injuries that occurred during any month of the year, concluding that the actual number of school bus injuries was about three times what the TRB reported.

Wyss remembers when he introduced legislation that ultimately lowered Indiana’s legal blood alcohol limit to 0.08, drunk-driving fatality statistics tended to persuade people of the value of such legislation. But without understanding the number of injuries, or their severity, people may be unaware of the extent to which crashes can ruin lives.

“People never really understand what ‘injured’ could be,” Wyss said.

Injuries in bus crashes vary by age, with children under age 9 more likely to sustain head injuries during a crash, Bull explained, and older students more likely to sustain injuries to their extremities – some of which are minor.

“We all recognize that for vehicle miles traveled, school buses are the safest vehicles on the road, but if you’re paraplegic or brain-damaged, it’s not minor,” she said.

Wyss anticipates that lawmakers will encounter some public pressure to take a closer look at the seat belt issue in the next legislative session.

“If parents demanded it – you’d have to find a way to do it,” he said.•

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  1. Am I the only one who sees that the City is essentially giving away the MSA site AND giving millions to build new buildings on the site when this site would be the perfect place for the Justice Complex? Across from City-County, check; keeping it centrally located, check, etc. It's my understanding that the GM site must be purchased by the City from Motors Liquidation Company. STOP WASTING WHAT WE ALREADY HAVE AND OUR TAX DOLLARS! The Ballard Administration has not been known for it's common sense...never voted for him and never will!

  2. This guy sounds like the classic molester/manipulator.

  3. Louis D. Brandeis was born in 1856. At 9 years of age it would have been 1865. The Brandeis family did not own slaves. My source Louis D. Brandeis: A Life, by Melvin L. Urofsky.

  4. My name is Matthew Lucas Major, I recently went through a jury trial in Bloomington , In. It was the week of Feb 19-21. Although I have been incarcerated since August 5, 2014. The reason I 'am writing to you sir is on the 21 of February the jury came in with a very excessive and wrongful verdict of guilty on 6 child molesting charges against my daughter who was 9 at the time I was accused. I also had 2 other Felonies one of Intimidation and 1 of Sexual Vicarious Gratification. Judge Marc Kellam on the second day of trial gave me a not guilty on those 2 felonies. The jury was sent out during that time and when brought back Judge Kellam told them to not concern themselves with the 2 Felonies that he ruled on them. They were told to not let evidence they had already heard influence there verdicts. I never in my life touched any child sexually and definitely not with my own daughter. When I was arrested Detective Shawn Karr told me I would be convicted guilty just on my daughters word even without evidence. That's just what happened. my public defender did me so wrong he never once proved to the court and jury all the lies the child told, and Jeremy Noel my public defender could of proven the lies easily. The stories in Serenity's depositions and Forensic interview changed and were not consistent as Prosecutor Darcie Fawcett claimed they were. Yet my attorney never mentioned that. The facts that the child accused me of full penetration in her vagina and rectum was proven lies. Doctor Roberta Hibbard of Riley hospital in Indianapolis confirmed Serenity's hymen intact, no scars, no tearing, no signs of rape to her. Yet my attorney didn't use that knowledge . the DNA was all in my favor. I tell you I will spend my entire life in prison going through rape and beatings etc. even Judge Kellam abused his authority by telling the jurors to listen and believe what the prosecutors side in evidence like my daughters testimony. In one interview with the detectives my daughter got flustered with her mom and said on camera " I'm saying what you told me to mom"!! Yet Mr. Noel said nor did anything to even resemble a defense attorney. Judge Kellam allowed edited version of a taped conversation between the child and her mother. Also Judge Kellam allowed the Prosecutor too bring in to my case a knife found under my seat, the knife wasn't part of my case. She was allowed by my attorney and the judge to put a huge picture of it on the screen and huge picture of my naked privates in a full courtroom and open court. Ms. Fawcett says to jury see how easy Mr. Major could reach the knife and cut his Childs throat. Even though I had no weapons charge against these cases. This gave the jurors prejudice thought against me thinking I threatened her with that knife and how scared she would of been knowing i could get it and kill her. On my sentencing court March 19, 2014 my public defender told Judge Kellam he wish to resign from being my attorney and wished for the court to give me outside council to file a error to trial or appeal. We were denied. Now after openly knowing my public defender don't want to represent me he has to. Well when as parents we make our kids clean a room when they really don't wish to, well the child will but don't mean she will do a good job, that's where I'm at with Mr. Noel. please dont ignore mine and my families pleas for your help . we have all the legal proof you could need to prove Im innocent. Please dont make my spend years in prison innocent when you can fix this wrong. Im not saying Im a perfect man or that I was a perfect dad to my 2 children none of us are. Ive made some bad choices in life and I paid for them. But I didnt ever touch or rape my daughter . I love my children with all my heart. And now through needing attention and a ex-wife who told my granny several times she wish she could put me in prison to get me out of their lives. Well my ex finally accomplished her goal. Sad part is she is destroying our daughter with all this horrific lies and things she taught my daughter to say. My daughter will need therapist to ever hope for a chance of a normal life after what she had done to her by her mom and their side of the family. My daughter told everyone even on stand she had a dream months before i supposedly molested her in this dream I was molesting her and when I finally did it matched her dream perfectly. She admitted to watching movies about little girls being molested and watching U-Tube videos about child molesting all before it happened supposedly to her. Doesn't that sound very unusual that a non molested 9 yr old would need to know so much about being molested? The only reason I could think a 9 year old would need so much information is to be prepared to know what to say and be able to say how it felt what took place etc.. So when questioned by authorities she would be prepared. And there again sir if a parent is pre grooming a 9 year old child she would need intimate details . Like telling her daughter about a couple moles on my private area. The child admitted to sneaking my cell and looking many many times at nudes of me and my girlfriend even one where my penis was entering my girlfriends vagina. In that picture my moles are obvious. Yet when prosecutor showed everyone in court my privates and pictures of the moles she said the only way the child would know about them is if she saw them for herself. My attorney once again said nothing about the pictures my child saw. Or could a ex-wife be able to describe my moles to help her case against getting rid of me? I beg you help me. This is my very existence. Ive lost everything , a good job, a wonderful girlfriend, my freedom, but worse thing Ive lost is my children. They were my reason to get up every morning and strive to be better. The wonderful bond I had with my Serenity is gone. After this I would be afraid to even hug her for fear of what next can they do to me. I'm not afraid to tell you I sit here in this cell and try to hold back my tears. Everyone knows you cant show weakness in prison. My life has already been threatened here at Wabash Valley Prison. After only 3 days of arrival. I was tricked into signing a waiver now Im in G Block General Population with 6 child molesting felony charges. Mrs. Hart as a 18 year old I almost died hooked to machines in hospital almost 1 month and now I know that fear was childish compared to this . I cant help but put emotions in this, after all Mrs. Hart Im human and God help Me I never been more afraid in my life. I didnt hurt my little girl I didnt touch her sexually. As much as it shreds me and fills my mind what Im facing I worry more about my mom and granny because of their great love for me mam they are suffering so deeply. I aint done this things but my loved ones suffering right along beside me and If you take my case you will be in essence freeing them also. I sent momma this letter and asked her to email it to you. I'm scared I have been done so unjustly by our legal system and I need you to fix this and give me freedom. I ask you please don't just ignore my pleas. Here in America its nice to be able to trust our legal justice system, well they destroyed my and my loved ones trust in our justice system . And I'm trusting in You !!! My entire family is suffering this nightmare with me. My 77 year old granny had a stroke and isn't doing so well. My single mother that raised 3 kids alone is dying from Lupus and since my arrest has stayed so sick and weary. Our lives torn to peices by a government I was taught I could trust in. my momma has tried so many innocent project and wrongfully accused and cant get anywhere. please please help me. A quote from the late Nelson Mandela: To be free is not merely to cast off ones chains, But to live in a way that respects and enhances The Freedom Of Others. I have Faith in you and your clinic to cast my chains off and give me freedom I do deserve as a wrongfully accused Man, son, brother, father, friend. Matthew Major DOC# 246179 Cause # : 53c02-1308-FA-000779 God Bless you. Please contact me with your decision so I know you made a life changing decision for me , just please at least write me so I know you care enough about your citizens to respond to cries for your help. You can speak openly with my mother Charlotte Spain (828) 476-0406: 71 Lakeview Dr. Canton, NC 28716 Thank You Matthew Major I know yall get thousands of request and inmates claiming innocence, and each person who are innocent deserve to have organizations like yours willing to fight for them and I give yall so much Thanks and I thank God everyday yall are out there caring enough to help free the innocents. Since discovering firsthand how easily lives and families can be destroyed by Poor Defense attorneys not doing their job . And Prosecutors allowed to do as they please in court

  5. Frankly, it is tragic that you are even considering going to an expensive, unaccredited "law school." It is extremely difficult to get a job with a degree from a real school. If you are going to make the investment of time, money, and tears into law school, it should not be to a place that won't actually enable you to practice law when you graduate.

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