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IBA: An Alternative to Rule 28(E) For Service of Non-Party Discovery

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By Germaine Winnick Willett and Pamela J. Heath, Ice Miller LLP
 

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willett-germaine-mug Willett

Did you know that Indiana law provides an easier way to pursue non-party discovery for use in out-of-state litigation? In 2007, the Uniform Law Commission promulgated the Uniform Interstate Depositions and Discovery Act (UIDDA) with the goal of promoting more efficient and less expensive procedures for seeking production of documents and depositions “as the amount of litigation involving individuals and documents located outside of the trial state has increased.” Indiana’s legislature adopted UIDDA in 2010. See Indiana Code § 34-44.5-1-1, et seq. Currently, approximately 30 states have adopted the Act, including Indiana’s neighbors, Michigan and Kentucky.

According to the legislative summary for Indiana Code § 34-44.5-1-1, et seq., the statute permits a litigant to present to a clerk of the court located in the county where discoverable materials are sought with a subpoena properly issued from the court in which the lawsuit pends (the “foreign jurisdiction”). Once the clerk receives a foreign subpoena, the clerk shall issue a subpoena for service upon the person or entity listed in the foreign subpoena, as long as the terms of the issued subpoena duplicate those in the foreign subpoena, and as long as the issued subpoena contains the contact information of all counsel of record and any unrepresented persons.

UIDDA does not supersede the procedure set forth in Indiana Trial Rule 28(E). If they choose, litigants may still obtain a court order (usually termed a commission or letters rogatory) from the foreign jurisdiction, and then file that order with a motion to assist out-of-state litigant in the Indiana jurisdiction where the non-party resides, in order to ask the court to direct the clerk to serve the subpoena on the non-party. However, as lawyers who have utilized this procedure know, the process set forth in Rule 28(E) can be cumbersome and time-consuming.

How does UIDDA differ from the procedure set forth in Indiana Trial Rule 28? Certainly, it eliminates the need to obtain a commission or letters rogatory from the foreign jurisdiction to be presented to an Indiana court. Under UIDDA, litigants may present a properly issued subpoena from the foreign jurisdiction directly to the clerk of the Indiana court sitting in the county where the person from whom testimony and/or documents are sought resides, and, per the statute, the clerk shall issue it for service without any involvement from the judge. Also, given the elimination of the requirement to file the commission with a motion to assist out-of-state litigant, the litigant need not retain an Indiana attorney, at least not at the outset.

It sounds simple, but here’s the rub: you may find that the clerk of the court lacks familiarity with UIDDA. As such, litigants who wish to proceed under UIDDA should contact the clerk of the court to discuss invocation of the statute. The statute does not refer to the opening of a case file, however, the clerk may nevertheless request that a miscellaneous action be filed in order to track the activity and maintain records. Though UIDDA was designed to avoid jumping through such hoops, the clerk may even instruct the litigant to file a motion to assist out-of-state litigant as the vehicle to open the action and require payment of a filing fee. At this point, retention of an attorney admitted to practice in Indiana will be necessary.

Does UIDDA permit a litigant to retain an Indiana attorney to serve the subpoena him or herself, as attorneys typically do in Indiana civil actions, so as to avoid involvement of the clerk all together? After all, Trial Rule 45 deems attorneys to be officers of the court and thereby empowers them to serve subpoenas. While this has not been tested in the courts, UIDDA likely does not go so far. First, UIDDA plainly states that “a party must submit the foreign subpoena to the clerk of the court.” The statute makes no mention of an attorney’s involvement. Second, Rule 45 limits the circumstances in which an attorney may serve subpoenas to those instances in which the attorney has appeared for the serving party. Thus, unless the Indiana attorney has appeared for the party in the foreign jurisdiction (certainly possible, but unlikely), Rule 45 does not authorize the attorney to serve a subpoena without the clerk’s involvement in any event.

As mentioned above, more than half of the states have adopted UIDDA. Indiana litigants who seek testimony or production of documents from a non-party located in another state should determine whether that state has adopted UIDDA or if it instead adheres to the more traditional commission/letters rogatory method. Additionally, good reason may exist to utilize Rule 28’s procedure instead of pursuing the discovery pursuant to UIDDA. For example, if the litigant anticipates that the target of a subpoena will resist the subpoena, having filed a motion to assist out-of-state litigant in a miscellaneous action will mean that a forum already exists to quickly resolve the discovery dispute, if and when it occurs.

UIDDA is a welcome addition to Indiana’s procedural law, because it simplifies the non-party discovery process. As the clerks in Indiana’s county courts gain familiarity with the statute, the statute’s use will undoubtedly save out-of-state litigants time and money as well as conserve judicial resources. The next time you receive a call from an out-of-state litigant seeking your help with securing a deposition or records from a non-party located in Indiana, consider whether Indiana Code § 34-44.5-1-1, et seq. is a better option for your client.•

Germaine Winnick Willett practices in the area of employment and general civil litigation at Ice Miller LLP. Pamela “PJ” Heath is a paralegal in Ice Miller LLP’s labor section.

This publication is intended for general information purposes only and does not and is not intended to constitute legal advice. The reader must consult with legal counsel to determine how laws or decisions discussed herein apply to the reader’s specific circumstances.

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  1. What a fine article, thank you! I can testify firsthand and by detailed legal reports (at end of this note) as to the dire consequences of rejecting this truth from the fine article above: "The inclusion and expansion of this right [to jury] in Indiana’s Constitution is a clear reflection of our state’s intention to emphasize the importance of every Hoosier’s right to make their case in front of a jury of their peers." Over $20? Every Hoosier? Well then how about when your very vocation is on the line? How about instead of a jury of peers, one faces a bevy of political appointees, mini-czars, who care less about due process of the law than the real czars did? Instead of trial by jury, trial by ideological ordeal run by Orwellian agents? Well that is built into more than a few administrative law committees of the Ind S.Ct., and it is now being weaponized, as is revealed in articles posted at this ezine, to root out post moderns heresies like refusal to stand and pledge allegiance to all things politically correct. My career was burned at the stake for not so saluting, but I think I was just one of the early logs. Due, at least in part, to the removal of the jury from bar admission and bar discipline cases, many more fires will soon be lit. Perhaps one awaits you, dear heretic? Oh, at that Ind. article 12 plank about a remedy at law for every damage done ... ah, well, the founders evidently meant only for those damages done not by the government itself, rabid statists that they were. (Yes, that was sarcasm.) My written reports available here: Denied petition for cert (this time around): http://tinyurl.com/zdmawmw Denied petition for cert (from the 2009 denial and five year banishment): http://tinyurl.com/zcypybh Related, not written by me: Amicus brief: http://tinyurl.com/hvh7qgp

  2. Justice has finally been served. So glad that Dr. Ley can finally sleep peacefully at night knowing the truth has finally come to the surface.

  3. While this right is guaranteed by our Constitution, it has in recent years been hampered by insurance companies, i.e.; the practice of the plaintiff's own insurance company intervening in an action and filing a lien against any proceeds paid to their insured. In essence, causing an additional financial hurdle for a plaintiff to overcome at trial in terms of overall award. In a very real sense an injured party in exercise of their right to trial by jury may be the only party in a cause that would end up with zero compensation.

  4. Why in the world would someone need a person to correct a transcript when a realtime court reporter could provide them with a transcript (rough draft) immediately?

  5. This article proved very enlightening. Right ahead of sitting the LSAT for the first time, I felt a sense of relief that a score of 141 was admitted to an Indiana Law School and did well under unique circumstances. While my GPA is currently 3.91 I fear standardized testing and hope that I too will get a good enough grade for acceptance here at home. Thanks so much for this informative post.

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