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Importance of contracts in construction

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A carefully crafted contract resulted in the Indiana Supreme Court finding a construction company had no duty of care to a subcontractor’s injured employee.

In Hunt Construction Group, Inc. and Mezzetta Construction, Inc., v. Shannon D. Garrett, No. 49S02-1106-CT-365, the justices reversed a Court of Appeals decision that found Hunt Construction Group – the project manager for the construction of Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis – owed a duty of care to a subcontractor’s employee who was injured on the job.

lucasoil-15col.jpg Construction of Lucas Oil Stadium began in 2005 and ended in 2008. (File photo)

Shannon Garrett, an employee of Baker Concrete, was on the jobsite in 2006 when another Baker Concrete employee was removing a piece of forming material above her, and the material fell, injuring Garrett’s head and left hand.

Hunt had no contract with Baker Concrete, but it had a contract with the Stadium Authority to oversee daily operations. Sean Devenney, an attorney who practices construction law with Drewry Simmons Vornehm, said Hunt went beyond what it was contractually obligated to do, taking steps to train workers about safety. Devenney said that the Supreme Court’s decision is important, because if Hunt had to defend itself at trial, construction companies might not see the value in providing additional safety training.

“It is going to be the defining case for quite some time about how to attempt to craft safety programs for clients without taking on liability that they really don’t have very much control over,” he said.

Precedent

The justices cited Nathan Stumpf and Sarisa Stumpf v. Hagerman Construction Corp. and D.A. Dodd Inc., 863 N.E.2d 871, 878 (Ind. Ct. App. 2007) – a case often relied upon in determining the duty of care in construction accident lawsuits. In that case, the Court of Appeals turned to the language of Hagerman’s contract to determine the company had owed a duty of care to a subcontractor.

The COA found in Stumpf that Hagerman’s contract with Purdue University showed that Purdue intended for Hagerman to be responsible for safety on the job site. Devenney said that while both Stumpf and Hunt concern the liability of a construction manager, the cases are distinguished by the language of contracts.

devenney-sean-mug Devenney

“In Hunt, they were very specific and they had many instances where they were clear that they were not taking on the role of safety for the contractors who were doing work,” he said.

Jeffrey Hammond, of Cohen & Malad, had argued on behalf of Garrett in the COA appeal. He said that he thinks Hunt will be limited in its applications going forward, as the type of complex agreement between parties in the case occurs primarily on large public projects.

“The reality is, you don’t see these agreements. In all the cases that I’ve dealt with, construction manager agreements don’t come up that often,” he said.

Hammond said that in large projects, the owner attempts to add layers of safeguards. He equated the construction manager’s role to that of an editor who proofreads a writer’s work.

jeff hammond Hammond

“The Stadium Authority should be commended for its commitment to worker safety and for paying a lot of money to Hunt to enforce project safety rules, and I encourage other project owners around the state to place high value on worksite safety,” he added.

Hammond said that as project owners put increasing emphasis on overall safety, they may be looking at construction management companies more carefully.

“Companies or contractors who put profits over safety and seek ways to avoid accountability for their worksite safety obligations are probably not going to get the job,” he said.

Opinions divided

The Supreme Court’s opinion in Hunt was not unanimous. Justice Brent Dickson’s perception was that the duty of care Hunt owed to Garrett was a “mixed question of fact and law.”

Devenney interprets that to mean Dickson would prefer to see the matter go before a jury.

“I think what he would be saying is that he’s looking at the contract and the activities Hunt took on with this project … probably what he’s saying is he trusts the jury to decide whether Hunt should be held accountable,” Devenney said.

mark voigtmann Voigtmann

When the Court of Appeals issued its opinion in this case, that decision wasn’t unanimous, either. Judge Ezra Friedlander agreed with the COA majority that Hunt did not assign a non-delegable duty to Garrett to assume vicarious liability, but he disagreed that Hunt owed a duty to Garrett based on conduct.

Safety in the industry

Mark Voigtmann leads the construction section of Faegre Baker Daniels’ real estate and construction group. He said safety is an ever-present concern in the construction industry.

“I think this decision is very helpful and despite appearances, is actually a pro-safety opinion, because it clarified that a construction company such as Hunt here can be involved in a very direct way in providing for the safety of all construction workers at a particular site while still being able to not bite off complete responsibility for that safety,” he said. “Reasonable minds can differ on this thing – I’m just a disinterested outside party looking in.”•

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  1. You can put your photos anywhere you like... When someone steals it they know it doesn't belong to them. And, a man getting a divorce is automatically not a nice guy...? That's ridiculous. Since when is need of money a conflict of interest? That would mean that no one should have a job unless they are already financially solvent without a job... A photographer is also under no obligation to use a watermark (again, people know when a photo doesn't belong to them) or provide contact information. Hey, he didn't make it easy for me to pay him so I'll just take it! Well heck, might as well walk out of the grocery store with a cart full of food because the lines are too long and you don't find that convenient. "Only in Indiana." Oh, now you're passing judgement on an entire state... What state do you live in? I need to characterize everyone in your state as ignorant and opinionated. And the final bit of ignorance; assuming a photo anyone would want is lucky and then how much does your camera have to cost to make it a good photo, in your obviously relevant opinion?

  2. Seventh Circuit Court Judge Diane Wood has stated in “The Rule of Law in Times of Stress” (2003), “that neither laws nor the procedures used to create or implement them should be secret; and . . . the laws must not be arbitrary.” According to the American Bar Association, Wood’s quote drives home this point: The rule of law also requires that people can expect predictable results from the legal system; this is what Judge Wood implies when she says that “the laws must not be arbitrary.” Predictable results mean that people who act in the same way can expect the law to treat them in the same way. If similar actions do not produce similar legal outcomes, people cannot use the law to guide their actions, and a “rule of law” does not exist.

  3. Linda, I sure hope you are not seeking a law license, for such eighteenth century sentiments could result in your denial in some jurisdictions minting attorneys for our tolerant and inclusive profession.

  4. Mazel Tov to the newlyweds. And to those bakers, photographers, printers, clerks, judges and others who will lose careers and social standing for not saluting the New World (Dis)Order, we can all direct our Two Minutes of Hate as Big Brother asks of us. Progress! Onward!

  5. My daughter was taken from my home at the end of June/2014. I said I would sign the safety plan but my husband would not. My husband said he would leave the house so my daughter could stay with me but the case worker said no her mind is made up she is taking my daughter. My daughter went to a friends and then the friend filed a restraining order which she was told by dcs if she did not then they would take my daughter away from her. The restraining order was not in effect until we were to go to court. Eventually it was dropped but for 2 months DCS refused to allow me to have any contact and was using the restraining order as the reason but it was not in effect. This was Dcs violating my rights. Please help me I don't have the money for an attorney. Can anyone take this case Pro Bono?

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