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Indiana Judges Association: Is it time for an electoral college for judges?

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IJA-Dreyer-David“I was married by a judge. I should have asked for a jury.”

Groucho Marx



Some people just do not like judges. But according to Indiana University Maurer School of Law professor Charles Geyh, most people do – at least up to a point. In Marion County, 18 judges were just “elected.” Or were they? Did the voters pick them, retain them or what? We don’t know because the voters don’t know. Geyh has chiseled an indelible body of work about judicial selection. Aside from Marion County’s “rather odd hybridized system,” his thinking has evolved over many years of research and observation. As he and others describe, overall the dilemma lies in the seemingly unattainable balance between “accountability,” i.e., elections by the people, and “independence,” that is, insulation from the people – or at least political and public influence.

Even the Framers argued about whether judges should be elected, appointed or whatever. Alexander Hamilton argued in “The Federalist Papers” that lifetime appointed judges were necessary “to guard the Constitution and the rights of individuals from the effects of . . . ill humors.” Indeed, as an elected judge, I have often suffered from “ill humor,” but is that any reason to preclude the public’s chance to select, or at least approve, the judges who decide their cases? Thomas Jefferson, like Groucho Marx, held a pessimistic view of judges’ power, believing that “Our judges are effectually independent of the nation. But this ought not to be … they should be submitted to some practical and impartial control.” Jefferson always advocated an elected federal bench or at least one more closely controlled by the executive branch (see Marbury v. Madison).

According to Geyh, about 80 percent of all state court judges face some sort of ballot – whether direct partisan or nonpartisan election, retention after appointment, or some mixture. For example, all Illinois state court judges are elected by direct partisan election and then thereafter stand for nonpartisan retention. But as Geyh recounts, the voters in Chicago get a judicial retention ballot listing over 100 names! Is that any better than Marion County’s intraparty “pick your top 9” system? As indicated at the outset above, Geyh finds that most people are just fine not knowing who the judges are.

“The best defense of judicial elections,” says Geyh, “is that 99 times out of 100, people are happy to just let a judge stay in office because it is assumed the judge is OK.” But on the other hand, “the public still wants that one time out of 100 to ‘throw the bum out’ if they feel like it.”

There are countless examples of good, elected judges who were thrown out after making correct, but unpopular, rulings as well as bad judges who were politically appointed within a so-called “merit” system.

“No system is safe,” says Geyh, who, after years of studying judicial selection, concludes that it is “a poor idea to take a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach.” Despite the well-known pitfalls of electing judges, Geyh reasons that such elections may outweigh concerns about independence and serve a useful purpose “where there is a deep-seated lack of confidence in courts.” Voters in such communities may need this accountability for public order. But Geyh says Indiana “has done pretty well maintaining public confidence,” and risks losing that proper balance between accountability and independence since selection systems among our counties are so varied.

When I was teaching a class, I asked the students how they voted for judges. Some said they voted just for women or looked for nice names (I wondered how I got elected) or just did not pick any. One student had a novel idea: why not have sitting judges pick them? After all, he reasoned, they know more than anyone who is qualified, fair and mild-tempered. As the media and the non-legal public increasingly scrutinize courts and judicial selection, maybe this is an idea whose time has come. If for no other reason than to see if Thomas Jefferson will turn in his grave, why not form an “electoral college” of sorts among the Indiana judiciary? Could this be any worse than the various theories and practices that have left the public largely befuddled, not to mention a clear lack of consensus among so many experts? As long as a public retention vote remains, would the public really care who picks the judges in the first place? A diverse panel of judges could arguably do as well as any current system or better. The benefits:

• Improved neighborhoods – there would be 80 percent fewer yard signs.

• Improved economy – there would be 95 percent fewer political fundraisers.

• Improved legal profession – think how much more civilized the lawyers will become, at least to we judges.

• Improved national standing – the Indiana Plan would take its place alongside the Missouri Plan (or at least whatever the Marion County plan is called).

Nevertheless, the more we care about how judges are selected, the more we develop an investment in our world. For with our courts, and the public’s confidence in them, we are the best country on the planet. We can select judges any way we want and the bottom line still never changes: the Constitution, equal access, time-honored due process, and the law. And judges will be there every day to make sure it never changes – no matter who picks them.•

__________

Judge David J. Dreyer has been a judge for the Marion Superior Court since 1997. He is a graduate of the University of Notre Dame and Notre Dame Law School. He is a former board member of the Indiana Judges Association. The opinions expressed are those of the author.

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  1. Am I the only one who sees that the City is essentially giving away the MSA site AND giving millions to build new buildings on the site when this site would be the perfect place for the Justice Complex? Across from City-County, check; keeping it centrally located, check, etc. It's my understanding that the GM site must be purchased by the City from Motors Liquidation Company. STOP WASTING WHAT WE ALREADY HAVE AND OUR TAX DOLLARS! The Ballard Administration has not been known for it's common sense...never voted for him and never will!

  2. This guy sounds like the classic molester/manipulator.

  3. Louis D. Brandeis was born in 1856. At 9 years of age it would have been 1865. The Brandeis family did not own slaves. My source Louis D. Brandeis: A Life, by Melvin L. Urofsky.

  4. My name is Matthew Lucas Major, I recently went through a jury trial in Bloomington , In. It was the week of Feb 19-21. Although I have been incarcerated since August 5, 2014. The reason I 'am writing to you sir is on the 21 of February the jury came in with a very excessive and wrongful verdict of guilty on 6 child molesting charges against my daughter who was 9 at the time I was accused. I also had 2 other Felonies one of Intimidation and 1 of Sexual Vicarious Gratification. Judge Marc Kellam on the second day of trial gave me a not guilty on those 2 felonies. The jury was sent out during that time and when brought back Judge Kellam told them to not concern themselves with the 2 Felonies that he ruled on them. They were told to not let evidence they had already heard influence there verdicts. I never in my life touched any child sexually and definitely not with my own daughter. When I was arrested Detective Shawn Karr told me I would be convicted guilty just on my daughters word even without evidence. That's just what happened. my public defender did me so wrong he never once proved to the court and jury all the lies the child told, and Jeremy Noel my public defender could of proven the lies easily. The stories in Serenity's depositions and Forensic interview changed and were not consistent as Prosecutor Darcie Fawcett claimed they were. Yet my attorney never mentioned that. The facts that the child accused me of full penetration in her vagina and rectum was proven lies. Doctor Roberta Hibbard of Riley hospital in Indianapolis confirmed Serenity's hymen intact, no scars, no tearing, no signs of rape to her. Yet my attorney didn't use that knowledge . the DNA was all in my favor. I tell you I will spend my entire life in prison going through rape and beatings etc. even Judge Kellam abused his authority by telling the jurors to listen and believe what the prosecutors side in evidence like my daughters testimony. In one interview with the detectives my daughter got flustered with her mom and said on camera " I'm saying what you told me to mom"!! Yet Mr. Noel said nor did anything to even resemble a defense attorney. Judge Kellam allowed edited version of a taped conversation between the child and her mother. Also Judge Kellam allowed the Prosecutor too bring in to my case a knife found under my seat, the knife wasn't part of my case. She was allowed by my attorney and the judge to put a huge picture of it on the screen and huge picture of my naked privates in a full courtroom and open court. Ms. Fawcett says to jury see how easy Mr. Major could reach the knife and cut his Childs throat. Even though I had no weapons charge against these cases. This gave the jurors prejudice thought against me thinking I threatened her with that knife and how scared she would of been knowing i could get it and kill her. On my sentencing court March 19, 2014 my public defender told Judge Kellam he wish to resign from being my attorney and wished for the court to give me outside council to file a error to trial or appeal. We were denied. Now after openly knowing my public defender don't want to represent me he has to. Well when as parents we make our kids clean a room when they really don't wish to, well the child will but don't mean she will do a good job, that's where I'm at with Mr. Noel. please dont ignore mine and my families pleas for your help . we have all the legal proof you could need to prove Im innocent. Please dont make my spend years in prison innocent when you can fix this wrong. Im not saying Im a perfect man or that I was a perfect dad to my 2 children none of us are. Ive made some bad choices in life and I paid for them. But I didnt ever touch or rape my daughter . I love my children with all my heart. And now through needing attention and a ex-wife who told my granny several times she wish she could put me in prison to get me out of their lives. Well my ex finally accomplished her goal. Sad part is she is destroying our daughter with all this horrific lies and things she taught my daughter to say. My daughter will need therapist to ever hope for a chance of a normal life after what she had done to her by her mom and their side of the family. My daughter told everyone even on stand she had a dream months before i supposedly molested her in this dream I was molesting her and when I finally did it matched her dream perfectly. She admitted to watching movies about little girls being molested and watching U-Tube videos about child molesting all before it happened supposedly to her. Doesn't that sound very unusual that a non molested 9 yr old would need to know so much about being molested? The only reason I could think a 9 year old would need so much information is to be prepared to know what to say and be able to say how it felt what took place etc.. So when questioned by authorities she would be prepared. And there again sir if a parent is pre grooming a 9 year old child she would need intimate details . Like telling her daughter about a couple moles on my private area. The child admitted to sneaking my cell and looking many many times at nudes of me and my girlfriend even one where my penis was entering my girlfriends vagina. In that picture my moles are obvious. Yet when prosecutor showed everyone in court my privates and pictures of the moles she said the only way the child would know about them is if she saw them for herself. My attorney once again said nothing about the pictures my child saw. Or could a ex-wife be able to describe my moles to help her case against getting rid of me? I beg you help me. This is my very existence. Ive lost everything , a good job, a wonderful girlfriend, my freedom, but worse thing Ive lost is my children. They were my reason to get up every morning and strive to be better. The wonderful bond I had with my Serenity is gone. After this I would be afraid to even hug her for fear of what next can they do to me. I'm not afraid to tell you I sit here in this cell and try to hold back my tears. Everyone knows you cant show weakness in prison. My life has already been threatened here at Wabash Valley Prison. After only 3 days of arrival. I was tricked into signing a waiver now Im in G Block General Population with 6 child molesting felony charges. Mrs. Hart as a 18 year old I almost died hooked to machines in hospital almost 1 month and now I know that fear was childish compared to this . I cant help but put emotions in this, after all Mrs. Hart Im human and God help Me I never been more afraid in my life. I didnt hurt my little girl I didnt touch her sexually. As much as it shreds me and fills my mind what Im facing I worry more about my mom and granny because of their great love for me mam they are suffering so deeply. I aint done this things but my loved ones suffering right along beside me and If you take my case you will be in essence freeing them also. I sent momma this letter and asked her to email it to you. I'm scared I have been done so unjustly by our legal system and I need you to fix this and give me freedom. I ask you please don't just ignore my pleas. Here in America its nice to be able to trust our legal justice system, well they destroyed my and my loved ones trust in our justice system . And I'm trusting in You !!! My entire family is suffering this nightmare with me. My 77 year old granny had a stroke and isn't doing so well. My single mother that raised 3 kids alone is dying from Lupus and since my arrest has stayed so sick and weary. Our lives torn to peices by a government I was taught I could trust in. my momma has tried so many innocent project and wrongfully accused and cant get anywhere. please please help me. A quote from the late Nelson Mandela: To be free is not merely to cast off ones chains, But to live in a way that respects and enhances The Freedom Of Others. I have Faith in you and your clinic to cast my chains off and give me freedom I do deserve as a wrongfully accused Man, son, brother, father, friend. Matthew Major DOC# 246179 Cause # : 53c02-1308-FA-000779 God Bless you. Please contact me with your decision so I know you made a life changing decision for me , just please at least write me so I know you care enough about your citizens to respond to cries for your help. You can speak openly with my mother Charlotte Spain (828) 476-0406: 71 Lakeview Dr. Canton, NC 28716 Thank You Matthew Major I know yall get thousands of request and inmates claiming innocence, and each person who are innocent deserve to have organizations like yours willing to fight for them and I give yall so much Thanks and I thank God everyday yall are out there caring enough to help free the innocents. Since discovering firsthand how easily lives and families can be destroyed by Poor Defense attorneys not doing their job . And Prosecutors allowed to do as they please in court

  5. Frankly, it is tragic that you are even considering going to an expensive, unaccredited "law school." It is extremely difficult to get a job with a degree from a real school. If you are going to make the investment of time, money, and tears into law school, it should not be to a place that won't actually enable you to practice law when you graduate.

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